Send to

Choose Destination
J Colloid Interface Sci. 2007 Sep 15;313(2):537-41. Epub 2007 Jun 11.

Use of Fe(3+) ion probe to study the stability of urea-intercalated kaolinite by electron paramagnetic resonance.

Author information

Laboratório de Projetos e Processos Ambientais - LABPAM, DQ/UFPR, CP 19081, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.


The effect of mechanical and chemical activation in processes of urea intercalation in the interlayer spacing of kaolinite and the effect of varying the temperature of the intercalation product between 100 and 200 degrees C were studied using Fe(3+) ions as a probe in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Other techniques were also used to characterize the samples. Monitoring the heating of urea-intercalated kaolinite, FTIR, and XRD revealed that the product obtained was stable up to a temperature of 150-160 degrees C. The EPR data indicated that the intercalation process promoted an approximation and increase of the magnetic interactions among the Fe(3+) ions. The DRUV-vis analysis of the product before heating showed an absorption band at 680 nm that was absent in the raw kaolinite. This band was attributed to the transition A(1)6-->T(2)4(G4) in the adjacent Fe(3+) ions, intensified by magnetic coupling among these ions. We suggest that intercalated urea forms hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl's oxygen and the hydroxyls bound to the Fe(3+) ions of the kaolinite structure. This would cause the approximation of the Fe(3+) ions, maximizing magnetic couplings and intensifying concentrated centers of Fe(3+), as was visible by EPR spectroscopy.


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center