Send to

Choose Destination
J Gen Virol. 2007 Jul;88(Pt 7):1967-76.

Genetic divergence of Chikungunya viruses in India (1963-2006) with special reference to the 2005-2006 explosive epidemic.

Author information

National Institute of Virology, 130/1 Sus Road, Pashan, Pune 411021, India.


Re-emergence of Chikungunya (CHIK), caused by CHIK virus, was recorded in India during 2005-2006 after a gap of 32 years, causing 1.3 million cases in 13 states. Several islands of the Indian Ocean reported similar outbreaks in the same period. These outbreaks were attributed to the African genotype of CHIK virus. To examine relatedness of the Indian isolates (IND-06) with Reunion Island isolates (RU), full-genome sequences of five CHIK virus isolates representative of different Indian states were determined. In addition, an isolate obtained from mosquitoes in the year 2000 (Yawat-2000), identified as being of the African genotype, and two older strains isolated in 1963 and 1973 (of the Asian genotype), were sequenced. The IND-06 isolates shared 99.9 % nucleotide identity with RU isolates, confirming involvement of the same strain in these outbreaks. The IND-06 isolates shared 98.2 % identity with the Yawat-2000 isolate. Of two crucial substitutions reported for RU isolates in the E1 region, M269V was noted in the Yawat-2000 and IND-06 isolates, whereas D284E was seen only in the IND-06 isolates. The A226V shift observed with the progression of the epidemic in Reunion Island, probably associated with adaptation to the mosquito vector, was absent in all of the Indian isolates. Three unique substitutions were noted in the IND-06 isolates: two (T128K and T376M) in the Nsp1 region and one (P23S) in the capsid protein. The two Asian strains showed 99.4 % nucleotide identity to each other, indicating relative stability of the virus. No evidence of recombination of the Asian and African genotypes, or of positive selection was observed. The results may help in understanding the association, if any, of the unique mutations with the explosive nature of the CHIK outbreak.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Ingenta plc
Loading ...
Support Center