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World J Gastroenterol. 2007 May 14;13(18):2541-53.

Glycogen storage diseases: new perspectives.

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Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Hacettepe University Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.


Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inherited metabolic disorders of glycogen metabolism. Different hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and cortisol regulate the relationship of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis. The overall GSD incidence is estimated 1 case per 20000-43000 live births. There are over 12 types and they are classified based on the enzyme deficiency and the affected tissue. Disorders of glycogen degradation may affect primarily the liver, the muscle, or both. Type Ia involves the liver, kidney and intestine (and Ib also leukocytes), and the clinical manifestations are hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, hypoglycemia, hyperlactatemia, hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia. Type IIIa involves both the liver and muscle, and IIIb solely the liver. The liver symptoms generally improve with age. Type IV usually presents in the first year of life, with hepatomegaly and growth retardation. The disease in general is progressive to cirrhosis. Type VI and IX are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by a deficiency of the liver phosphorylase and phosphorylase kinase system. There is no hyperuricemia or hyperlactatemia. Type XI is characterized by hepatic glycogenosis and renal Fanconi syndrome. Type II is a prototype of inborn lysosomal storage diseases and involves many organs but primarily the muscle. Types V and VII involve only the muscle.

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