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Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Sep;22(9):1297-301. Epub 2007 Jun 5.

Screening for hypercalciuria in schoolchildren: what should be the criteria for diagnosis?

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Pediatric Nephrology, School of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.


The methodologies to diagnose hypercalciuria have not yet been standardized. The aims of this study were to assess the correlation between urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (UCa/Cr) > or = 0.21 (mg/mg) and 24 h urinary calcium excretions and to determine the reference values of the UCa/Cr ratio among a large population of schoolchildren in southern Turkey. Non-fasting, second morning urine samples were collected from 2,143 children aged 7-14 years. In children with suspected hypercalciuria [UCa/Cr > or = 0.21 (mg/mg)], 24 h urine samples were collected. The 95th percentile values of the UCa/Cr ratio for each age were calculated and showed a decrease in value with advancing age. In all, 269 (12.5%) of the children had UCa/Cr > or = 0.21 (mg/mg), of whom 66 (24.5%) had daily urinary calcium excretion > or =4 mg/kg per day. A weak correlation was found between spot UCa/Cr ratios and daily urinary calcium excretions in children with UCa/Cr > or = 0.21 (r = 0.27). We conclude that a spot UCa/Cr ratio of 0.21 (mg/mg) as the upper limit of normal cannot be used universally to define hypercalciuria. Age-specific reference values for UCa/Cr should be established for each population, to be used as a screening test for hypercalciuria, and the definite diagnosis should be established with 24 h urinary calcium excretion whenever possible.

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