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J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5354-62. Epub 2007 Jun 2.

effect of dose size on bioavailability of acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Var. capitata).

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  • 1Diet and Human Performance Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.


Recent studies indicate that anthocyanin intake conveys a variety of health benefits, which depend on absorption and metabolic mechanisms that deliver anthocyanins and their bioactive metabolites to responsive tissues. The anthocyanin bioavailability of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) was evaluated as reflected by urinary excretion of anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites. Twelve volunteers consumed 100, 200, and 300 g of steamed red cabbage (containing 1.38 micromol of anthocyanins/g of cabbage) in a crossover design. Anthocyanin concentration in cabbage extract and urine was measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Six nonacylated and 30 acylated anthocyanins were detected in red cabbage, and 3 nonacylated anthocyanins, 8 acylated anthocyanins, and 4 metabolites were present in urine. Mean 24 h excretion of intact anthocyanins increased linearly from 45 (100 g dose) to 65 nmol (300 g dose) for acylated anthocyanins and from 52 (100 g dose) to 79 nmol (300 g dose) for nonacylated anthocyanins. Urinary recovery of intact anthocyanins (percent of anthocyanin intake) decreased linearly from 0.041% (100 g dose) to 0.020% (300 g dose) for acylated anthocyanins and from 0.18% (100 g dose) to 0.09% (300 g dose) for nonacylated anthocyanins. Anthocyanin metabolites consisted of glucuronidated and methylated anthocyanins. The results show that red cabbage anthocyanins were excreted in both intact and metabolized forms and that recovery of nonacylated anthocyanins in urine was >4-fold that of acylated anthocyanins.

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