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Pharmacopsychiatry. 2007 May;40(3):93-102.

A study of genetic (CYP2D6 and ABCB1) and environmental (drug inhibitors and inducers) variables that may influence plasma risperidone levels.

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University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky.


Risperidone (R) is metabolized to 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OHR) by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The main objective of this naturalistic study was to investigate the variables associated with two plasma ratios: the plasma R:9-OHR concentration ratio and the total concentration-to-dose (C:D) ratio. These ratios were studied as continuous measures by linear regression analyses and as three dichotomous variables in logistic regression analyses: R:9-OHR ratio >1 (indicative of lack of CYP2D6 activity), C:D ratio >14 (indicative of diminished R elimination), and C:D ratio <3.5 (indicative of increased R elimination). Plasma R levels; genotypes for CYP2D6, CYP3A5; and ABCB1 genes, and co-medication, including CYP inhibitors and CYP3A inducers, were studied in 277 patients. Almost all CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) had an inverted R:9-OHR ratio (>1). Having a CYP2D6 PM phenotype was strongly associated with a C:D ratio >14 (OR=8.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.0-32.7), indicating diminished R elimination. CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs) did not exhibit an increased R elimination. Some ABCB1 (or MDR1) variants were significantly associated with increased R:9-OHR ratios and decreased C:D ratios, but the results were neither consistent nor robust. Taking CYP inhibitors was significantly associated with a C:D ratio >14 (OR=3.8; CI=1.7-8.7) and with an inverted R:9-OHR ratio. Taking CYP3A inducers was significantly associated with a C:D ratio <3.5 (OR=41.8; CI=12.7-138), indicating increased R elimination. Female gender and old age appeared to be associated with a lower R elimination. Our study indicated that the CYP2D6 PM phenotype may have a major role in personalizing R doses, whereas the CYP3A5 PM phenotype probably has no role. CYP inducers and inhibitors appear to be relevant to R dosing. New studies are needed, particularly to further assess the role of the CYP2D6 UM phenotype and ABCB1 variants in R pharmacokinetics.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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