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Dev Biol. 2007 Jul 15;307(2):340-55. Epub 2007 May 3.

Identification and characterization of a novel Schwann and outflow tract endocardial cushion lineage-restricted periostin enhancer.

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Cardiovascular Development Group, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.


Periostin is a fasciclin-containing adhesive glycoprotein that facilitates the migration and differentiation of cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transformation during embryogenesis and in pathological conditions. Despite the importance of post-transformational differentiation as a general developmental mechanism, little is known how periostin's embryonic expression is regulated. To help resolve this deficiency, a 3.9-kb periostin proximal promoter was isolated and shown to drive tissue-specific expression in the neural crest-derived Schwann cell lineage and in a subpopulation of periostin-expressing cells in the cardiac outflow tract endocardial cushions. In order to identify the enhancer and associated DNA binding factor(s) responsible, in vitro promoter dissection was undertaken in a Schwannoma line. Ultimately a 304-bp(peri) enhancer was identified and shown to be capable of recapitulating 3.9 kb(peri-lacZ)in vivo spatiotemporal patterns. Further mutational and EMSA analysis helped identify a minimal 37-bp region that is bound by the YY1 transcription factor. The 37-bp enhancer was subsequently shown to be essential for in vivo 3.9 kb(peri-lacZ) promoter activity. Taken together, these studies identify an evolutionary-conserved YY1-binding 37-bp region within a 304-bp periostin core enhancer that is capable of regulating simultaneous novel tissue-specific periostin expression in the cardiac outflow-tract cushion mesenchyme and Schwann cell lineages.

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