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Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2007;85(5):235-42. Epub 2007 May 25.

Comparison of accuracy and precision between frame-based and frameless stereotactic navigation for deep brain stimulation electrode implantation.

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Unit of Functional and Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.


The accuracy and precision of frameless neuronavigation as compared to conventional frame-based stereotaxy for implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes were studied in 14 patients with essential tremor. DBS electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the ventrolateral thalamus [ventrointermediate nucleus (VIM)] in one procedure. Frameless neuronavigation was used on one side and the conventional frame-based technique on the other. Targeting was guided by MRI and CT imaging. Intraoperative stereotactic plain X-ray verified final electrode positions and electrode deviations from the planned target were measured. Clinical outcome was evaluated with the Essential Tremor Rating Scale. Thirteen of the patients were eligible for measuring electrode deviations and 10 of them were available for a clinical follow-up. Electrode deviations from target were larger using the frameless technique in the medial-lateral (x: 1.9 +/- 1.3 mm) and anterior-posterior (y:0.9 +/- 0.8 mm) directions as compared to the frame-based technique (x: 0.5 +/- 0.5 and y: 0.4 +/- 0.4 mm) but similar in the superior-inferior direction (z). The vector of deviation was 2.5 +/- 1.4 mm with the frameless technique and 1.2 +/- 0.6 with the frame-based technique. The differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05-0.001). The dispersion was larger with the frameless technique as represented by the larger standard deviations in all three planes. At clinical follow-ups, tremor reduction was similar irrespective of the implantation technique. It is concluded that conventional frame-based stereotaxy has higher accuracy/precision for hitting a small brain target than the frameless technique. However, the difference is relatively small and does not influence the clinical result of DBS electrode implantations in the VIM when treating tremor.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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