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Chem Phys Lipids. 2007 Aug;148(2):63-9. Epub 2007 Apr 21.

Hydrophilic carotenoids: surface properties and aggregation of an astaxanthin-lysine conjugate, a rigid, long-chain, highly unsaturated and highly water-soluble tetracationic bolaamphiphile.

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Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.


The surface and aggregation properties of a synthetic, highly water-soluble carotenoid, the tetracationic astaxanthin-lysine conjugate (Asly), have been examined through measurements of surface tension, optical absorption and dynamic light scattering. The following parameters were determined: critical aggregation concentration c(M), surface concentration Gamma, molecular area a(m), free energy of adsorption and aggregation (DeltaG(ad) degrees and DeltaG(M) degrees , respectively), and the aggregate size r(H). The compound forms true monomolecular solutions in water below c(M); aggregates emerge only at rather high concentrations (> or =2.18 mM).

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