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Nat Immunol. 2007 Jul;8(7):753-61. Epub 2007 May 27.

Lymphoid reservoirs of antigen-specific memory T helper cells.

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Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.


How vaccines control the development of antigen-specific effector and memory T helper cells is central to protective immunity but remains poorly understood. Here we found that protein vaccination selected high-affinity, CXCR5+ICOS(hi) follicular B-helper T cells (T(FH) cells) that developed in draining lymphoid tissue to regulate B cell responses. In the memory phase, reservoirs of antigen-specific CXCR5+ICOS(lo) T(FH) cells persisted with less effector activity but accelerated antigen-recall ability. This new compartment of memory T(FH) cells was retained in draining lymphoid sites with antigen-specific memory B cells, persistent complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex class II and continued expression of CD69. Thus, protein vaccination promotes B cell immunity by selecting high-affinity effector T(FH) cells and creating lymphoid reservoirs of antigen-specific memory T(FH) cells in vivo.

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