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Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Aug;27(15):5534-43. Epub 2007 May 25.

Enhanced sensitivity to cholera toxin in ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase-deficient mice.

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Pulmonary-Critical Care Medicine Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 6D05, MSC 1590, Bethesda, MD 20892-1590, USA.


Cholera toxin (CT) produced by Vibrio cholerae causes the devastating diarrhea of cholera by catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of the alpha subunit of the intestinal Gs protein (Gsalpha), leading to characteristic water and electrolyte losses. Mammalian cells contain ADP-ribosyltransferases similar to CT and an ADP-ribosyl(arginine)protein hydrolase (ADPRH), which cleaves the ADP-ribose-(arginine)protein bond, regenerating native protein and completing an ADP-ribosylation cycle. We hypothesized that ADPRH might counteract intoxication by reversing the ADP-ribosylation of Gsalpha. Effects of intoxication on murine ADPRH-/- cells were greater than those on wild-type cells and were significantly reduced by overexpression of wild-type ADPRH in ADPRH-/- cells, as evidenced by both ADP-ribose-arginine content and Gsalpha modification. Similarly, intestinal loops in the ADPRH-/- mouse were more sensitive than their wild-type counterparts to toxin effects on fluid accumulation, Gsalpha modification, and ADP-ribosylarginine content. Thus, CT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of cell proteins can be counteracted by ADPRH, which could function as a modifier gene in disease. Further, our study demonstrates that enzymatic cross talk exists between bacterial toxin ADP-ribosyltransferases and host ADP-ribosylation cycles. In disease, toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation overwhelms this potential host defense system, resulting in persistence of ADP-ribosylation and intoxication of the cell.

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