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Am J Pathol. 2007 Jun;170(6):2100-11.

Prostate cancer-associated membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase: a pivotal role in bone response and intraosseous tumor growth.

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Department of Urology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E. Canfield, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.


Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a major mediator of collagen I degradation. In human samples, we show that prostate cancer cells in skeletal metastases consistently express abundant MT1-MMP protein. Because prostate cancer bone metastasis requires remodeling of the collagen-rich bone matrix, we investigated the role of cancer cell-derived MT1-MMP in an experimental model of tumor-bone interaction. MT1-MMP-deficient LNCaP human prostate cancer cells were stably transfected with human wild-type MT1-MMP (MT1wt). Furthermore, endogenous MT1-MMP was down-regulated by small interfering RNA in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Intratibial tumor injection in severe combined immunodeficient mice was used to simulate intraosseous growth of metastatic tumors. LNCaP-MT1wt cells produced larger osseous tumors than Neo control cells and induced osteolysis, whereas DU145 MT1-MMP-silenced transfectants induced osteogenic changes. In vitro assays showed that MT1wt overexpression enhanced collagen I degradation, whereas MT1-MMP-silencing did the opposite, suggesting that tumor-derived MT1-MMP may contribute directly to bone remodeling. LNCaP-MT1wt-derived conditioned medium stimulated in vitro multinucleated osteoclast formation. This effect was inhibited by osteoprotegerin, a decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand, and by 4-[4-(methanesulfonamido) phenoxy] phenylsulfonyl methylthiirane, an MT1-MMP inhibitor. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that prostate cancer-associated MT1-MMP plays a direct and/or indirect role in bone matrix degradation, thus favoring intraosseous tumor expansion.

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