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J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jun;107(6):956-61.

Dietary patterns of adolescent girls in Hawaii over a 2-year period.

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  • 1Department of Human Nutrition, Food, and Animal Sciences, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.



To describe changes in dietary patterns of adolescent girls in Hawaii from 2001 to 2003.


Cohort study, with exams 2 years apart.


One hundred fifty-one girls of Asian, white, and mixed ethnicity who were aged 9 to 14 years at exam 1 and aged 11 to 16 years at exam 2 and lived on the island of Oahu, HI.


Three-day diet records were obtained at each exam. Mean nutrient and food group intakes and weight, height, and body mass index were determined and compared between the two exams.


Data are summarized as means+/-standard deviation unless otherwise stated. Differences in values between groups were analyzed for significance using paired t tests and multiple regression.


Girls at exams 1 and 2 had mean carbohydrate intakes of 233 g and 241 g, respectively, and protein intakes of 67 g and 65 g, respectively. None of the carbohydrate intakes were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) at exam 1 and only one girl was below at exam 2. Three percent of girls had protein intakes that were below the EAR at exam 1 whereas 9% were below at exam 2. For iron intakes, 3% of girls were below the EAR at exam 1 and 14% of girls were below at exam 2. Girls at exams 1 and 2 had mean calcium intakes of 733 mg and 732 mg, respectively, and fiber intakes of 11.2 g and 11.4 g, respectively; lower than the Adequate Intake recommendation. The percentage of energy from macronutrients in exams 1 and 2, respectively, was in range of the Appropriate Macronutrient Distribution Range for more than 70% of girls (76% for exam 1, 79% for exam 2), but the mean percentage intake of saturated fat intake was higher than the recommended range for more than 65% of the girls at both exams 1 and 2 (69% at exam 1, 73% at exam 2). However, no significant differences were found in percent contribution of or in total intake of macronutrients between the two exams. More than half of girls (51% to 100%) did not consume the recommended number of Food Guide Pyramid Servings for any food group at either exam 1 or 2. A significant increase was found for sweetened carbonated beverage intake (from 130 g to 179 g; P<0.05) and for added sugar intake (from 16 tsp to 18 tsp; P<0.01) between exams 1 and 2, a level well above recommendations. As expected, mean body weight and mean body mass index increased significantly between exams 1 and 2 (P<0.05).


These data suggest high dietary intakes of dietary fat and sugar, and increasing intakes of sweetened carbonated beverages and other high-sugar drinks during adolescence among girls in Hawaii.

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