Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur J Public Health. 2008 Feb;18(1):12-8. Epub 2007 May 23.

Individual, group and community risk and protective factors for alcohol and drug use among Swedish adolescents.

Author information

Department of Public Health Sciences at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.



A number of factors have been identified that protect adolescents or, alternatively, put them at risk for drug use and other high-risk behaviours. These factors concern different personal and environmental factors, e.g. the community, the school setting, family, peer group and individual characteristics. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between risk and protective factors and adolescents' use of alcohol and drugs.


In both May 2003 and 2004, random samples of 4800 adolescents (a total of 9600) in Sweden were contacted and asked to fill out a questionnaire. It concerned use of alcohol and illicit drugs and a large number of adolescent risk and protective factors. A total of 5445 (57%) adolescents agreed to participate.


About 44% of the adolescents in grade 9 (15-16 years of age) had been drunk on at least one occasion and nearly 80% of those in grade 11 (17-18 years of age). Almost 15% in grade 9 and 40% in grade 11 had been drinking heavily during the previous month, and 4% in grade 9 and 12% in grade 11 had used cannabis. Strong associations were found between elevated individual, family, school and community risk factors and use of alcohol and drugs. Conversely, protective factors were negatively related to the use of alcohol and drugs.


This study confirms the importance of risk and protective factors within different domains in explaining alcohol and drug use among adolescents. The results support efforts targeting multiple risk and protective factors in alcohol and drug preventive interventions for adolescents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
    Loading ...
    Support Center