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Cell Microbiol. 2007 Aug;9(8):1891-901. Epub 2007 May 23.

How important are Toll-like receptors for antimicrobial responses?

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School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.


The innate immune system is the primary line of defence against invading pathogenic microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of membrane receptors which play a pivotal role in sensing a wide range of invading pathogens including bacteria, fungi and viruses. TLR-deficient mice have provided us with immense knowledge on the functioning of individual TLRs. Dysregulation of TLR signalling is linked with a number of disease conditions. Disease models have helped show that targeting components of TLR signalling cascades could lead to novel therapies in the treatment of infectious diseases. In this review we focus on the evidence provided to date to explain just how important TLRs are in host defence against microbial pathogens.

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