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Mol Membr Biol. 2007 May-Jun;24(3):173-84.

How to address CPP and AMP translocation? Methods to detect and quantify peptide internalization in vitro and in vivo (Review).

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Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.


Membrane translocation is a crucial issue when addressing the activity of both cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides. Translocation is responsible for the therapeutic potential of cell-penetrating peptides as drug carriers and can dictate the killing mechanisms, selectivity and efficiency of antimicrobial peptides. It is essential to evaluate if the internalization of cell-penetrating peptides is mediated by endocytosis and if it is able to internalize attached cargoes. The mode of action of an antimicrobial peptide cannot be fully understood if it is not known whether the peptide acts exclusively at the membrane level or also at the cytoplasm. Therefore, experimental methods to evaluate and quantify translocation processes are of first importance. In this work, over 20 methods described in the literature for the assessment of peptide translocation in vivo and in vitro, with and without attached macromolecular cargoes, are discussed and their applicability, advantages and disadvantages reviewed. In addition, a classification of these methods is proposed, based on common approaches to detect translocation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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