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J Law Med Ethics. 2007 Summer;35(2):265-72.

Clinical trials of xenotransplantation: waiver of the right to withdraw from a clinical trial should be required.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver,Colorado, USA.


Xenotransplantation pits clinical research ethics against public health needs because recipients must undergo long-term, perhaps life-long, surveillance for infectious diseases. This surveillance requirement is effectively an abrogation of the right to withdraw from a clinical trial. Ulysses contracts, which are advance directives for future care, may be an ethical mechanism by which to balance public health needs against limitation of individual rights.

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