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Jpn J Infect Dis. 2007 May;60(2-3):113-7.

Performance and quality assurance of genotypic drug-resistance testing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Japan.

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National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Aichi 460-0001, Japan.


Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and plasma HIV-1 to below detectable levels. However, HAART becomes ineffective when drug-resistant viruses emerge during HAART. Monitoring drug-resistance mutations in viruses is necessary for selecting new drugs or therapies effective at inhibiting such HIV-1 variants. Most laboratories in Japan perform the tests using in-house protocols. However, the quality of these tests has never been assessed. Our study assessing the accuracy and reliability of HIV-1 genotypic drug-resistance testing in 15 laboratories in Japan revealed that the quality was very high (97.3% accurate). The errors, though rare, were caused by human errors, poor electropherograms, and the use of inadequate primers. Here, we propose troubleshooting procedures to improve testing accuracy and reliability in Japan.

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