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J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1447-54.

Consumption of sweetened beverages and intakes of fructose and glucose predict type 2 diabetes occurrence.

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National Public Health Institute, Helsinki FIN, Finland.


The role of intakes of different sugars in the development of type 2 diabetes was studied in a cohort of 4,304 men and women aged 40-60 y and initially free of diabetes at baseline in 1967-1972. Food consumption data were collected using a dietary history interview covering the habitual diet during the previous year. The intakes of different sugars were calculated and divided in quartiles. During a 12-y follow-up, 177 incidents of type 2 diabetes cases were identified from a nationwide register. Combined intake of fructose and glucose was associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes but no significant association was observed for intakes of sucrose, lactose, or maltose. The relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles of combined fructose and glucose intake was 1.87 (95% [CI] = 1.19, 2.93; P = 0.003). The corresponding relative risks between the extreme quartiles of consumption of food items contributing to sugar intakes were 1.69 (95% [CI] = 1.17, 2.43; P < 0.001) for sweetened berry juice and 1.67 (95% [CI] = 0.98, 2.87; P = 0.01) for soft drinks. Our findings support the view that higher intake of fructose and glucose and sweetened beverages may increase type 2 diabetes risk.

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