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Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 2007 Feb;19(1):5-13.

Persistant dysphonia following endotracheal intubation.

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Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, American University of Beirut.


Voice production is a complex process that involves more than one system, yet most causes of dysphonia are attributed to disturbances in the laryngeal structures and little attention is paid to extralaryngeal factors. Persistent dysphonia after general anesthesia is a challenge to both anesthesiologists and otolaryngologists. The etiology is often multivariable and necessitates a team approach for proper diagnosis. Laryngeal symptoms are subdivided into phonatory disturbances and airway related complaints. When they become persistent for more than 72 hours or are coupled with airway symptoms such as hemoptysis, stridor, dyspnea or aspiration, the anesthesiologist should suspect injury to the vocal folds or cricoarytenoid joints. Here-below, the laryngeal manifestations of endotracheal intubation and the pathophysiology of vocal fold scarring are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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