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J Clin Periodontol. 2007 Jun;34(6):523-44.

Smoking interferes with the prognosis of dental implant treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Department of Oral Surgery and Dental Radiology, Campus Virchow Clinic, Centre for Dental Medicine, Charité Medical University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.



This systematic literature review was performed to investigate if smoking interferes with the prognosis of implants with and without accompanying augmentation procedures compared with non-smokers.


A systematic electronic and handsearch (articles published between 1989 and 2005; English and German language; search terms "dental or oral implants and smoking"; "dental or oral implants and tobacco") was performed to identify publications providing numbers of failed implants, related to the numbers of smokers and non-smokers for meta-analysis. Publications providing statistically examined data of implant failures or biologic complications among smokers compared with non-smokers were included for systematic review.


Of 139 publications identified, 29 were considered for meta-analysis and 35 for systematic review. Meta-analysis revealed a significantly enhanced risk for implant failure among smokers [implant-related odds ratio (OR) 2.25, confidence interval (CI(95%)) 1.96-2.59; patient-related OR 2.64; CI(95%) 1.70-4.09] compared with non-smokers, and for smokers receiving implants with accompanying augmentation procedures (OR 3.61; CI(95%) 2.26-5.77, implant related). The systematic review indicated significantly enhanced risks of biologic complications among smokers. Five studies revealed no significant impact of smoking on prognosis of implants with particle-blasted, acid-etched or anodic oxidized surfaces.


Smoking is a significant risk factor for dental implant therapy and augmentation procedures accompanying implantations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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