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Glia. 2007 Aug 1;55(10):1011-22.

Synergistic induction of cyclin D1 in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells by IGF-I and FGF-2 requires differential stimulation of multiple signaling pathways.

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Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.


D-type cyclins are direct targets of extracellular signals and critical regulators of G(1) progression. Our previous data demonstrated that IGF-I and FGF-2 synergize to enhance cyclin D1 expression, cyclin E/cdk2 complex activation, and S-phase entry in OP cells. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for how two growth factor signaling pathways converge on a major cell cycle regulator. IGF-I and FGF-2 differentially activate signaling pathways to coordinately promote cyclin D1 expression. We show that the p44/p42 MAPK signaling pathway is essential for FGF-2 induction of cyclin D1 mRNA. In contrast, blocking the PI3-Kinase pathway results in loss of IGF-I/FGF-2 synergistic induction of cyclin D1 protein levels. Moreover, the presence of IGF-I significantly enhances nuclear localization of cyclin D1, which also requires PI3K signaling. GSK-3beta, a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt pathway, is phosphorylated in the presence of IGF-I in OPs. Consistent with a known role for GSK-3beta in cyclin D1 degradation, we show that proteasome inhibition in OPs exposed to FGF-2 increased cyclin D1 levels, equivalent to levels seen in IGF-I/FGF-2 treated cells. Thus, we provide a model for cyclin D1 coordinate regulation where FGF-2 stimulation of the MAPK pathway promotes cyclin D1 mRNA expression while IGF-I activation of the PI3K pathway inhibits proteasome degradation of cyclin D1 and enhances nuclear localization of cyclin D1.

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