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Annu Rev Neurosci. 2007;30:367-98.

Neurobiology of feeding and energy expenditure.

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Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.


Significant advancements have been made in the past century regarding the neuronal control of feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The effects and mechanisms of action of various peripheral metabolic signals on the brain have become clearer. Molecular and genetic tools for visualizing and manipulating individual components of brain homeostatic systems in combination with neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, behavioral, and pharmacological techniques have begun to elucidate the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of complex feeding behavior and energy expenditure. This review highlights some of these advancements that have led to the current understanding of the brain's involvement in the acute and chronic regulation of energy homeostasis.

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