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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;293(2):E538-47. Epub 2007 May 15.

Ubiquitination is involved in glucose-mediated downregulation of GIP receptors in islets.

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Diabetes Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone that has a potent stimulatory effect on insulin release under conditions of normal glucose tolerance. However, its insulinotropic effect is reduced or even absent entirely in type 2 diabetic patients. In this study, we addressed the role of glucose concentration in the diabetic range of >or=11 mM, i.e., hyperglycemia per se, as a cause of the lack of response to GIP. Culturing rat and human pancreatic islets in >or=11 mM glucose for up to 24 h resulted in prevention of GIP-mediated intracellular cAMP increase compared with culturing in 5 mM glucose. Western blot analysis revealed a selective 67 +/- 2% (rat) and 60 +/- 8% (human) decrease of GIP-R expression in islets exposed to >or=11 mM glucose compared with 5 mM glucose (P < 0.001). We further immunoprecipitated GIP-R from islets and found that GIP-R was targeted for ubiquitination in a glucose- and time-dependent manner. Downregulation of GIP-R was rescued by treating isolated islets with proteasomal inhibitors lactacystin and MG-132, and the islets were once again capable of increasing intracellular cAMP levels in response to GIP. These results suggest that the GIP-R is ubiquitated, resulting in downregulation of the actions of GIP.

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