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J Lipid Res. 2007 Aug;48(8):1792-800. Epub 2007 May 11.

Proteinuria increases oxylipid concentrations in VLDL and HDL but not LDL particles in the rat.

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Western Human Nutrition Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, USA.


We previously established that proteinuria alters the apolipoprotein content of lipoproteins. This study was conducted to establish whether proteinuria also alters the concentrations of oxidized lipids within lipoprotein density fractions. To this end, we induced passive Heymann nephritis in Sprague Dawley rats and measured an array of alkaline-stable oxylipids in VLDL, LDL, and HDL particles. Proteinuria increased the total oxylipid amounts in the HDL and VLDL fractions. More importantly, these levels were increased when expressed per unit lipoprotein protein, indicating that the oxidized lipid load per particle was increased. Epoxides and diols increased approximately 2-fold in HDL and approximately 5-fold in VLDL, whereas LDL showed approximately 2-fold decreases. The hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) increased >4-fold in HDL and >20-fold in VLDL, whereas LDL showed approximately 2-fold decreases in the HODEs. Therefore, nephrotic syndrome alters the lipoprotein oxylipid composition independently of an increase in total lipoprotein levels. These proteinuria-induced changes may be associated with the cardiovascular risk of lipoprotein oxidation.

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