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J Hazard Mater. 2007 Oct 22;149(2):269-74. Epub 2007 Mar 30.

Copper biosorption from aqueous solutions by sour orange residue.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Avenue, Tehran, Iran.


In this study, copper uptake by sour orange residue (SOR) was investigated. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were obtained and the effects of solution pH, temperature, and particle size were studied in batch experiments. Equilibrium was well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and kinetics was found to be best-fit pseudo-second order equations. Maximum uptake was observed at pH 5. With an increase in temperature from 20 to 50 degrees C, copper removal decreased about 20%. Additional chemical treatment of the biosorbent by NaOH, increased the biosorption capacity. It was found that increase in biosorbent particle size had no significant effects on the final equilibrium concentration, but decreased biosorption rate.

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