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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 May;55(5):740-6.

Bone mineral density and age-related maculopathy in older women.

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1
Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. seitzman@ucla.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To determine whether bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with age-related maculopathy (ARM) risk in older women.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional analysis at Year 10 (1997/98) of the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF).

SETTING:

Four clinical centers in the United States.

PARTICIPANTS:

One thousand forty-two randomly sampled SOF participants who attended the Year 10 clinic visit.

MEASUREMENTS:

ARM status was determined from fundus photographs using a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System 6-level severity scale used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Total hip BMD was measured at Year 10 using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Information on potential confounders, including age, reproductive hormone exposures, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, nutrition, education, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and physical activity, was ascertained with questionnaires.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of ARM was 50% (46% had early ARM and 4% had late ARM). After potential confounder adjustment, greater BMD was associated with lower odds of ARM (odds ratio (OR) per 1 standard deviation increase in BMD=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.70-0.96). Women in the highest quartile of BMD had lower odds of ARM than those in the lowest quartile (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.41-0.97) and those in the lowest three quartiles combined (OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.48-0.91).

CONCLUSION:

Higher levels of BMD may be associated with lower risk for ARM. The underlying mechanism is unknown, although BMD may be a marker for lifetime endogenous estrogen exposure. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and further investigate the nature of the relationship between BMD and ARM.

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