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J Med Chem. 2007 May 31;50(11):2622-39. Epub 2007 May 10.

An adamantyl-substituted retinoid-derived molecule that inhibits cancer cell growth and angiogenesis by inducing apoptosis and binds to small heterodimer partner nuclear receptor: effects of modifying its carboxylate group on apoptosis, proliferation, and protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity.

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Cancer Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 9;51(19):6236. Ye, Mao [added].


Apoptotic and antiproliferative activities of small heterodimer partner (SHP) nuclear receptor ligand (E)-4-[3'-(1-adamantyl)-4'-hydroxyphenyl]-3-chlorocinnamic acid (3-Cl-AHPC), which was derived from 6-[3'-(1-adamantyl)-4'-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid (AHPN), and several carboxyl isosteric or hydrogen bond-accepting analogues were examined. 3-Cl-AHPC continued to be the most effective apoptotic agent, whereas tetrazole, thiazolidine-2,4-dione, methyldinitrile, hydroxamic acid, boronic acid, 2-oxoaldehyde, and ethyl phosphonic acid hydrogen bond-acceptor analogues were inactive or less efficient inducers of KG-1 acute myeloid leukemia and MDA-MB-231 breast, H292 lung, and DU-145 prostate cancer cell apoptosis. Similarly, 3-Cl-AHPC was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation. 4-[3'-(1-adamantyl)-4'-hydroxyphenyl]-3-chlorophenyltetrazole, (2E)-5-{2-[3'-(1-adamantyl)-2-chloro-4'-hydroxy-4-biphenyl]ethenyl}-1H-tetrazole, 5-{4-[3'-(1-adamantyl)-4'-hydroxyphenyl]-3-chlorobenzylidene}thiazolidine-2,4-dione, and (3E)-4-[3'-(1-adamantyl)-2-chloro-4'-hydroxy-4-biphenyl]-2-oxobut-3-enal were very modest inhibitors of KG-1 proliferation. The other analogues were minimal inhibitors. Fragment-based QSAR analyses relating the polar termini with cancer cell growth inhibition revealed that length and van der Waals electrostatic surface potential were the most influential features on activity. 3-Cl-AHPC and the 3-chlorophenyltetrazole and 3-chlorobenzylidenethiazolidine-2,4-dione analogues were also able to inhibit SHP-2 protein-tyrosine phosphatase, which is elevated in some leukemias. 3-Cl-AHPC at 1.0 microM induced human microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis but did not inhibit cell migration or tube formation.

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