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Blood. 2007 Aug 15;110(4):1379-87. Epub 2007 May 8.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia arising from myelodysplastic syndrome: similar outcomes in patients with de novo disease and disease following prior therapy or antecedent hematologic disorders.

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Department of Hematology, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.


We analyzed outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 257 patients, 3 to 72.7 years old (median, 43 y), with secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) including those with transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (tAML). Conditioning regimens included high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI)/chemotherapy (n = 83); busulfan (BU)/cyclophosphamide (CY) (BUCY, n = 122; with BU targeting [tBUCY], n = 93); fludarabine (Flu) with tBU (FLUtBU; n = 12); Flu plus 200 cGy TBI (n = 26); and miscellaneous regimens (n = 14). Donors were HLA-identical or partially mismatched family members in 135 and unrelated individuals in 122 patients. Five-year relapse-free survival was highest (43%) and nonrelapse mortality lowest (28%) among tBUCY-conditioned patients. Outcomes were compared with results in 339 patients who received transplants for de novo MDS/tAML, and a multivariate analysis failed to show significant differences in outcome between the 2 cohorts. Relapse probability and relapse-free survival correlated significantly with disease stage (P < .001) and karyotype (P < .001). Relapse incidence was lower (P = .003) and relapse-free survival superior (P = .02) with unrelated donor transplants. The data suggest that overall inferior outcome in patients with secondary MDS/tAML was related to the frequency of high-risk cytogenetics. For both cohorts, transplantation outcomes improved over the time interval studied.

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