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Biomed Sci Instrum. 2007;43:200-5.

Lateral bending biomechanical analysis of neck protection devices used in football.

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Center for Injury Biomechanics, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.


The objective of this study was to perform a dynamic biomechanical analysis of football neck collars in order to determine their effect on head and neck loading. A total of 48 tests were performed comparing the Cowboy Collar, Bullock Collar, and the Kerr Collar. A control and each collar was tested at two speeds (5 m/s and 7 m/s), three impact locations (front, top, and side of the helmet), and two shoulder pad positions (normal and raised). This paper specifically analyzes the load limiting capabilities of these collars during an impact to the side of the helmet. A 50 percentile male Hybrid III dummy was equipped with a helmet, shoulder pads, and the various neck collars mentioned. The dummy was instrumented with tri-axial accelerometers at the CG of the head. Angular rate sensors were used in the head and chest. In addition, both the upper and lower neck were instrumented with load cells. The helmet was struck with a pneumatic linear impactor to provoke rotation of the head and neck. With the side impact location, the Kerr Collar substantially reduced lower neck moment. These reductions in loads correlate with the degree to which each collar restricted the motion of the head and neck.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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