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Diabetes. 1991 Dec;40 Suppl 2:136-41.

Follow-up of women with previous GDM. Insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin responses to oral glucose load.

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Department of Pediatrics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a strong predictor of glucose intolerance later in life. Former GDM (n = 145) and control (n = 41) subjects were studied 3-4 yr after the index pregnancy. They were subjected to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurements of insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin in the basal state and every 30 min for 180 min. In the former GDM group, 5 subjects (3.4%) had developed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and 32 (22%) had developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; by World Health Organization criteria). In the control group, 2 (4%) had IGT. In the GDM group, IGT or NIDDM was significantly associated with obesity (body mass index [BMI] greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2) and earlier diagnosis of GDM during pregnancy (P less than 0.001). Nonobese (BMI less than 25 kg/m2) GDM subjects with normal glucose tolerance at follow-up had significantly higher mean glucose (P less than 0.01), insulin (P less than 0.05), and proinsulin (P less than 0.001) values during the OGTT than control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in C-peptide values. A comparison between control subjects with normal OGTT and BMI less than 25 kg/m2 (n = 39) and GDM subjects (n = 39) selected to have a comparable area under the glucose curve, BMI, and age demonstrated no group differences in glucose, C-peptide, or insulin levels, whereas the proinsulin levels were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) during the glucose load. The molar ratio between proinsulin and insulin was also significantly higher among the former GDM subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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