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Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006 Jun;9(2):42-9.

Prevention and treatment of contrast-induced nephropathy.

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Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.


Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a well-known complication of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures requiring contrast administration and accounts for 10 to 12% of acute renal failure in hospitalized patients. Although the incidence of this complication is relatively low, its consequences can be catastrophic. The development of CIN is associated with increased hospital length of stay, an increased requirement for acute dialysis, and an increased risk of death. Preexisting renal dysfunction, age, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and volume of administered contrast are all associated with a risk of developing CIN. Despite a large number of clinical trials that have evaluated prophylaxis strategies for CIN, only the use of hemofiltration and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in specific subgroups of patients have been shown to reduce dialysis requirement and mortality in patients undergoing angiographic procedures. In this review we will discuss the epidemiology and the risk factors for CIN and the evidence for commonly employed prophylaxis strategies, and we will provide general recommendations with respect to CIN prevention and management.

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