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Annu Rev Microbiol. 2007;61:131-48.

Roles of cyclic diguanylate in the regulation of bacterial pathogenesis.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.


Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger of growing recognition involved in the regulation of a number of complex physiological processes. This review describes the biosynthesis and hydrolysis of c-di-GMP and several mechanisms of regulation of c-di-GMP metabolism. The contribution of c-di-GMP to regulating biofilm formation and motility, processes that affect pathogenesis of many bacteria, is described, as is c-di-GMP regulation of virulence gene expression. Finally, ways in which c-di-GMP may mediate these regulatory effects are proposed.

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