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J Youth Adolesc. 2006 Dec;35(6):1037-1053.

Structure and validity of people in my life: A self-report measure of attachment in late childhood.

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Research Associate in the Prevention Research Center at Pennsylvania State University. He received his Ph.D. in Educational/School Psychology from Ball State University in 1996 and his Masters in Psychiatric Epidemiology from Washington University in St. Louis, School of Medicine in 1999, He completed post-doctoral training in Psychiatric Epidemiology at Washington University School of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry. His major research interests are etiology of problem behaviors, psychological assessment, and prevention science.


No self-report measure of attachment is well validated for middle-childhood. This study examined the validity and factor structure of the People in My Life (PIML) measure in 320 urban, fifth and sixth graders. Validity analyses consisted of correlational analyses between PIML subscales and the Child Behavior Checklist, Delinquency Rating Scale for Self and Others, Heath Resources Inventory, and Reynolds Child Depression Scale. Validity correlations were consistent with a-priori hypotheses. Confirmatory factor analyses consisted of comparison of model fit indices between seven models. Two models fit the data well and both models were consistent with the traditionally used PIML scoring protocol. Moreover, both models were consistent with the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), on which the PIML is modeled, as well as the theoretical underpinnings of attachment in childhood. The PIML and IPPA provide instruments for obtaining a continuous self-report measure of attachment from middle-childhood through adulthood.

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