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J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Apr;121(4):2254-60.

A two-dimensional biomechanical model of vocal fold posturing.

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  • 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.


The forces and torques governing effective two-dimensional (2D) translation and rotation of the laryngeal cartilages (cricoid, thyroid, and arytenoids) are quantified on the basis of more complex three-dimensional movement. The motions between these cartilages define the elongation and adduction (collectively referred to as posturing) of the vocal folds. Activations of the five intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the cricothyroid, thyroarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, posterior cricoarytenoid, and interarytenoid are programmed as inputs, in isolation and in combination, to produce the dynamics of 2D posturing. Parameters for the muscles are maximum active stress, passive stress, activation time, contraction time, and maximum shortening velocity. The model accepts measured electromyographic signals as inputs. A repeated adductory-abductory gesture in the form /hi-hi-hi-hi-hi/ is modeled with electromyographic inputs. Movement and acoustic outputs are compared between simulation and measurement.

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