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Exp Cell Res. 2007 Jul 1;313(11):2367-77. Epub 2007 Mar 30.

Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta1 enhance HK-2 cell migration through a synergistic increase of matrix metalloproteinase and sustained activation of ERK signaling pathway.

Author information

1
Kidney Institute, Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. dryctian@adm.cgmh.org.tw

Abstract

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), upregulated in renal diseases, have a combinational effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of renal proximal tubular cells. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism regarding the combinational effect of EGF and TGF-beta1 on cell migration following EMT. The results demonstrated that EGF (10 ng/ml) and TGF-beta1 (3 ng/ml) synergistically increased cell migration, accompanied by an increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene expression, production and activity. Inhibition of MMP-9 production and activity by an MMP-2/MMP-9-specific inhibitor blocked the synergistic effect of EGF and TGF-beta1 on cell migration. The kinetic profile of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signals demonstrated that ERK1/2 activation was rapidly and strongly induced by EGF but delayed and less marked by TGF-beta1 stimulation. In contrast, co-administration of EGF and TGF-beta1 caused an early pronounced and persistent ERK1/2 activation. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 activity by PD98059 abrogated the synergistic effect of EGF and TGF-beta1 on cell migration, MMP-9 production and activity, indicating that EGF and TGF-beta1 converged at the ERK signaling pathway to mediate cell migration. This study demonstrates that EGF and TGF-beta1 synergistically stimulate proximal tubular cell migration through the increased MMP-9 function and enhanced ERK1/2 activation.

PMID:
17467690
DOI:
10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.03.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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