Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40(1):14-21. Epub 2007 Jan 28.

Activating transcription factor 4.

Author information

University of Stanford School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, CCSR-South, 269 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the ATF/CREB (activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element binding protein) family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factors, which have the consensus binding site cAMP responsive element (CRE). ATF4 has numerous dimerization partners. ATF4 is induced by stress signals including anoxia/hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, amino acid deprivation, and oxidative stress. ATF4 expression is regulated transcriptionally, translationally via the PERK pathway of eIF2alpha phosphorylation, and posttranslationally by phosphorylation, which targets ATF4 to proteasomal degradation. ATF4 regulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress, amino acid synthesis, differentiation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Transgenic studies have demonstrated ATF4 to be involved in hematopoiesis, lens and skeletal development, fertility, proliferation, differentiation, and long-term memory. ATF4 expression is upregulated in cancer. Since ATF4 is induced by tumour microenvironmental factors, and regulates processes relevant to cancer progression, it might serve as a potential therapeutic target in cancer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center