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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 May 1;49(17):1806-12. Epub 2007 Apr 16.

The relationship between neo-aortic root dilation, insufficiency, and reintervention following the Ross procedure in infants, children, and young adults.

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Division of Cardiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.



The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between neo-aortic root size, neo-aortic insufficiency (AI), and reintervention at mid-term follow-up.


Data on neo-aortic valve function and growth after the Ross procedure in children are limited.


A total of 74 of 119 Ross patients from January 1995 to December 2003 had > or =2 follow-up echocardiograms at our institution and were included. Neo-aortic dimensions were converted to z-scores and modeled over time. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess freedom from neo-aortic outcomes, and predictors were identified through multivariate analysis.


Median age at Ross was 9 years (range 3 days to 34 years). Over 4.7 years (range 3 months to 9.3 years) follow-up, there was disproportionate enlargement of the neo-aortic root (z-score increase of 0.75/year [p < 0.0001]). Neo-AI progressed > or =1 grade in 36% of patients and > or =2 grades in 15%. Nine patients (12%) had neo-aortic reintervention at 2.0 years (range 1.1 to 9.5 years) after the Ross procedure owing to severe neo-AI (n = 7), neo-aortic root dilation (n = 1), and neo-aortic pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). At 6 years after the Ross procedure, freedom from neo-aortic reintervention was 88%. Freedom from neo-aortic root z-score >4 was only 3% and from moderate or greater neo-AI was 60%. Longer follow-up time was associated with neo-aortic root dilation (p < 0.0001). Prior ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair predicted neo-AI (p = 0.02) and reintervention (p = 0.03). Prior aortic valve replacement (p = 0.002) also predicted neo-AI. Neo-aortic root dilation was not associated with neo-AI or reintervention.


At mid-term follow-up after the Ross procedure, neo-aortic root size increases significantly out of proportion to somatic growth, and neo-AI is progressive. Prior VSD repair and aortic valve replacement were associated with neo-AI and reintervention.

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