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J Biomech. 2007;40 Suppl 1:S11-7. Epub 2007 Apr 25.

In vivo knee moments and shear after total knee arthroplasty.

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Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education, Scripps Clinic, 11025 N. Torrey Pines Road, Suite 140, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Biomech. 2008 Jul 19;41(10):2332-5.


Tibiofemoral loading is very important in cartilage degeneration as well as in component survivorship after total knee arthroplasty. We have previously reported the axial knee forces in vivo. In this study, a second-generation force-sensing device that measured all six components of tibial forces was implanted in a 74-kg, 83-year-old male. Video motion analysis, ground reaction forces, and knee forces were measured during walking, stair climbing, chair-rise, and squat activities. Peak total force was 2.3 times body weight (BW) during walking, 2.5 x BW during chair rise, 3.0 x BW during stair climbing, and 2.1 x BW during squatting. Peak anterior shear force at the tibial tray was 0.30 x BW during walking, 0.17 x BW during chair rise, 0.26 x BW during stair climbing, and 0.15 x BW during squatting. Peak flexion moment at the tray was 1.9% BW x Ht (percentage of body weight multiplied by height) for chair-rise activity and 1.7% BW x Ht for squat activity. Peak adduction moment at the tray was -1.1% BW x Ht during chair-rise, -1.3% BW x Ht during squatting. External knee flexion and adduction moments were substantially greater than flexion and adduction moments at the tray. The axial component of forces predominated especially during the stance phase of walking. Shear forces and moments at the tray were very modest compared to total knee forces. These findings indicate that the soft tissues around the knee absorbed most of the external shear forces. Our results highlight the importance of direct measurements of knee forces.

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