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Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Jun 1;42(11):1671-9. Epub 2007 Feb 12.

Nox1-based NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide is required for VSMC activation by advanced glycation end-products.

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Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.


Vascular diseases are important clinical complications of diabetes. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) are mediators of vascular dysfunction, but their effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) ROS production are unclear. We studied the source and downstream targets of AGE-mediated ROS and reactive nitrogen species production in these cells. Significant increases in superoxide production in AGE-treated VSMC were measured using lucigenin (7650+/-433 vs 4485+/-424 LU/10(6) cells, p<0.001) or coelenterazine (277,907+/-71,295 vs 120,456+/-4140 LU/10(6) cells, p<0.05) and confirmed by ESR spectroscopy. These signals were blocked by the flavin-containing oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI). AGE-stimulated NF-kappaB activity was abolished by DPI and the superoxide scavenger MnTBAP. AGE differentially regulated VSMC NADPH oxidase catalytic subunits, stimulating the transcription of Nox1 (201+/-12.7%, p<0.0001), while having no effect on Nox4. AGE also increased 3-nitrotyrosine formation, which was inhibited by MnTBAP, DPI, or the NOS inhibitor L-NAME. Regarding the source of NO, AGE stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (1 vs 9.7+/-3.0, p=0.046), which was abolished by a NF-kappaB inhibitor, SOD, catalase, or siRNA against Nox1. This study establishes that AGE activate iNOS in VSMC through a ROS-sensitive, NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism involving ROS generation by a Nox1-based oxidase.

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