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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 May;1771(5):576-89. Epub 2007 Mar 16.

n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce the expression of COX-2 via PPARgamma activation in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells.

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Macrophages, Mediateurs de l'Inflammation et Interactions Cellulaires, Université Paul Sabatier, EA 2405- INSERM IFR 31, Institut Louis Bugnard, BP 84225, 31432 Toulouse CEDEX 4, France.


Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-3 inhibit inflammation, in vivo and in vitro in keratinocytes. We examined in HaCaT keratinocyte cell line whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) a n-3 PUFA, gamma-linoleic acid (GLA) a n-6 PUFA, and arachidic acid a saturated fatty acid, modulate expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme pivotal to skin inflammation and reparation. We demonstrate that only treatment of HaCaT with GLA and EPA or a PPARgamma ligand (roziglitazone), induced COX-2 expression (protein and mRNA). Moreover stimulation of COX-2 promoter activity was increased by those PUFAs or rosiglitazone. The inhibitory effects of GW9662 and T0070907 (PPARgamma antagonists), on COX-2 expression and on stimulation of COX-2 promoter activity by EPA and GLA suggest that PPARgamma is implicated in COX-2 induction. Finally, PLA2 inhibitor methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate blocked the PUFA effects on COX-2 induction, promoter activity and arachidonic acid mobilization suggesting involvement of AA metabolites in PPAR activation. These findings demonstrate that n-3 and n-6 PUFA increased PPARgamma activity is necessary for the COX-2 induction in HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. Given the anti-inflammatory properties of EPA, we suggest that induction of COX-2 in keratinocytes may be important in the anti-inflammatory and protective mechanism of action of PUFAs n-3 or n-6.

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