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J Immunother. 2007 May-Jun;30(4):378-95.

"Pathogen-mimicking" nanoparticles for vaccine delivery to dendritic cells.

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Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3118, Dentistry/Pharmacy Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2N8.


A clinically relevant delivery system that can efficiently target and deliver antigens and adjuvant to dendritic cells (DCs) is under active investigation. Immunization with antigens and immunomodulators encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles elicits potent cellular immune responses; but understanding how this mode of delivery affects DCs and priming of naive T cells needs further investigation. In the current study, we assessed the extent of maturation of DCs after treatment with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles and the generation of primary T-cell immune responses elicited by DCs loaded with antigens using this approach. Results indicated that DCs up-regulated the expression of surface maturation markers and demonstrated an enhanced allostimulatory capacity after treatment with MPLA containing PLGA nanoparticles. Treatment of DCs with MPLA containing nanoparticles released high amounts of proinflammatory and TH1 (T helper 1) polarizing cytokines and chemokines greater than that achieved by MPLA in solution. The delivery of ovalbumin in PLGA nanoparticles to DCs induced potent in vitro and in vivo antigen-specific primary TH1 immune responses that were furthermore enhanced with codelivery of MPLA along with the antigen in the nanoparticle formulation. Delivery of MUC1 lipopeptide (BLP25, a cancer vaccine candidate) and MPLA in PLGA nanoparticles to human DCs induced proliferation of MUC1 reactive T cells in vitro demonstrating the break in tolerance to self-antigen MUC1. These results demonstrated that targeting antigens along with toll-like receptor ligands in PLGA nanoparticles to DCs is a promising approach for generating potent TH1 polarizing immune responses that can potentially override self-tolerance mechanisms and become beneficial in the immunotherapy of cancer and infectious diseases.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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