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Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Sep 5;144B(6):781-90.

Investigation of variation in SNAP-25 and ADHD and relationship to co-morbid major depressive disorder.

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Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.


Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), a protein involved in presynaptic neurotransmitter release, is a candidate gene for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous investigators have reported association initially with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3746544, rs1051312) and their associated haplotypes. Subsequently, additional SNPs across the region were also reported to be associated with ADHD. We attempted to replicate these observations in a sample of 229 families with ADHD offspring by genotyping 61 SNPs spanning the region containing SNAP-25. A single SNP (rs3787283) which is in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs3746544 and rs1051312 (D' = 0.89-0.94) resulted in a nominally significant association (P = 0.002). When we pooled our data with those from prior studies, results were modestly significant for rs3746544 (P = 0.048) and rs6077690 (P = 0.031). As an attempt to determine if specific ADHD-related phenotypes may be more relevant to SNAP-25 than the categorical diagnosis, we carried out exploratory subgroup analysis in our ADHD sample according to co-morbid status. We found the strongest association result in the ADHD patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD). Six SNPs were nominally associated with the ADHD and co-morbid MDD cases (P = 0.012-0.045). Furthermore, a haplotype block located 11 kb 3' of the gene showed positive evidence for association with this phenotype (global P = 0.013). In conclusion, we report some evidence supporting the association of previously implicated SNPs (rs3746544, rs1051312) of SNAP-25 to ADHD. We further suggest that co-morbidity with MDD may enhance detection of the association between SNAP-25 and ADHD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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