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Front Neuroendocrinol. 2007 Aug-Sep;28(2-3):61-71. Epub 2007 Mar 24.

The relationship between nutrition and circadian rhythms in mammals.

Author information

1
Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. froy@agri.huji.ac.il

Abstract

The master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus regulates circadian rhythms in mammals. The clock is an intracellular, transcriptional mechanism sharing the same molecular components in SCN neurons and in peripheral cells, such as the liver, intestine, and retina. The circadian clock controls food processing and energy homeostasis by regulating the expression and/or activity of enzymes involved in cholesterol, amino acid, lipid, glycogen, and glucose metabolism. In addition, many hormones involved in metabolism, such as insulin, glucagon, adiponectin, corticosterone, leptin, and ghrelin, exhibit circadian oscillation. Furthermore, disruption of circadian rhythms is involved in the development of cancer, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Metabolism and food intake also feed back to influence the biological clock. Calorie restriction (CR) entrains the SCN clock, whereas timed meals entrain peripheral oscillators. Furthermore, the cellular redox state, dictated by food metabolism, and several nutrients, such as glucose, ethanol, adenosine, caffeine, thiamine, and retinoic acid, can phase-shift circadian rhythms. In conclusion, there is a large body of evidence that links feeding regimens, food components, and the biological clock.

PMID:
17451793
DOI:
10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.03.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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