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J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Aug;22(8):1224-33.

Bone healing and migration of cord blood-derived stem cells into a critical size femoral defect after xenotransplantation.

Author information

1
Research Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopaedics, Heinrich-Heine University Medical School, Duesseldorf, Germany. Jaeger@med.uni-duesseldorf.de

Abstract

Stem cell and tissue engineering-based therapies have become a promising option to heal bony defects in the future. Human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto a collagen/tricalcium phosphate scaffold and xenotransplanted into critical size femoral defects of 46 nude rats. We found a survival of human cells within the scaffold and surrounding bone/bone marrow up to 4 wk after transplantation and an increased bone healing rate compared with controls without stem cells. This study supports the application of cord blood stem cells for bone regeneration.

INTRODUCTION:

The treatment of critical size bone defects is still a challenging problem in orthopedics. In this study, the survival, migration, and bone healing promoting potency of cord blood-derived stem cells were elucidated after xenotransplantation into a critical size femoral defect in athymic nude rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) isolated from human cord blood were tested toward their mesenchymal in vitro potency and cultivated onto a collagen I/III and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) scaffold. The biomaterial-USSC composite was transplanted into a 4-mm femoral defect of 40 nude rats and stabilized by an external fixator. Twelve animals without USSCs served as controls. Cell survival, migration, and bone formation were evaluated by blood samples, X-rays, and histological and immunocytochemical analysis of different organs within a maximal postoperative follow-up of 10 wk.

RESULTS:

Of the 52 nude rats, 46 animals were evaluated (drop-out rate: 11.5%). Human-derived stem cells showed an engraftment within the scaffold and adjacent femur up to 4 wk after xenotransplantation. With further time, the human cells were destroyed by the host organism. We found a significant increase in bone formation in the study group compared with controls. USSC transplantation did not significantly influence blood count or body weight in athymic nude rats. Whereas the collagen I/III scaffold was almost resorbed 10 wk after transplantation, there were still significant amounts of TCP present in transplantation sites at this time.

CONCLUSIONS:

Human cord blood-derived stem cells showed significant engraftment in bone marrow, survived within a collagen-TCP scaffold up to 4 wk, and increased local bone formation in a nude rat's femoral defect.

PMID:
17451370
DOI:
10.1359/jbmr.070414
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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