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Toxicol Sci. 2007 Jul;98(1):110-7. Epub 2007 Apr 21.

Comparison of estimated dietary intake of acrylamide with hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide.

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  • 1Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway.


In a study comprising 50 subjects, we investigated the relationship between acrylamide (AA) intake from food using food frequency questionnaires and the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of AA and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide (GA) as a measure of the internal exposure. A method using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection for the determination of the Hb adducts as phenylthiohydantoin derivatives in human blood was developed. The limit of quantification for AA- and GA-Hb adducts were 2 and 6 pmol/g globin, respectively, and the between-assay precision was below 25%. The estimated dietary intake of AA was (median and range) 13.5 microg/day (4.1-72.6) in nonsmokers and 18.3 microg/day (7.8-32.0) in smokers. In nonsmokers, males had a higher intake than females, 16.6 microg/day (18.6-72.6) and 12.8 microg/day (4.1-30.2), respectively. Nonsmokers had a median AA and GA adduct concentration of 36.8 (range 17.9-65.5) and 18.2 (range 6.7-45.6) pmol/g globin, respectively. In smokers, the values were 165.8 (98.8-211) and 83.2 (29.1-99.0) pmol/g globin, respectively. Using multiple linear regression analysis, a significant positive correlation was found between the AA-Hb adduct concentration and the intake of chips/snacks and crisp bread. GA-Hb adduct did not correlate with consumption of any of the main food groups. Neither AA-Hb nor GA-Hb adduct concentration correlated with total dietary intake of AA as calculated from the reported food intake. Adduct concentrations did not correlate with 24 h urinary excretion of mercapturic acid metabolites of AA and GA in the same subjects reported previously.

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