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Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007 Aug;23(2):249-59. Epub 2006 Oct 11.

Enhancement of nonspecific immunity and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus by Solanum trilobatum leaf fractions.

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Centre for Fish Immunology, P.G. Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, Lady Doak College, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water and hexane soluble fractions of the Indian medicinal plant, Solanum trilobatum on the nonspecific immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of 0, 4, 40 or 400 mg kg(-1) body weight of water or hexane soluble fraction. The nonspecific immune mechanisms were assessed in terms of serum lysozyme activity, reactive oxygen species production and reactive nitrogen species production by peripheral blood leucocytes. The functional immunity in terms of percentage mortality and Relative Percent Survival (RPS) was assessed by a challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Almost all the doses of both water and hexane soluble fractions enhanced the serum lysozyme activity. All the doses of water soluble fraction significantly enhanced the ROS production on most of the days tested. In hexane soluble fraction treated groups, the enhancement in the ROS production was observed at least on 2 days. All the doses of water soluble fraction significantly enhanced the production of RNS only on one day. The RNS production was enhanced significantly only in the group treated with 40 mg kg(-1) of hexane fraction. The leaf fraction administration preceding the challenge with live A. hydrophila, decreased the percentage mortality in the experimental group with the consequent increase in RPS values. This preliminary study indicates that S. trilobatum could be used to promote the health status of fish in intensive finfish aquaculture.

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