Send to

Choose Destination
J Oral Pathol Med. 2007 May;36(5):255-61.

Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and its progression to oral carcinoma: a review of the literature.

Author information

Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612-7213, USA.



Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a distinct clinical form of oral leukoplakia defined by its progressive clinical course, changing clinical and histopathological features, and potential to develop into cancer. PVL behaves in a more aggressive and relentless manner than the more innocuous white oral lesions that it can resemble clinically.


A PubMed search was conducted which identified studies that examined patients with PVL and reported data meeting inclusion criteria.


PVL is seen much more frequently in females and most often diagnosed after the sixth decade of life. Tobacco use is not strongly linked to the presence of PVL (63% of patients did not use tobacco products). Most (74%) of the patients with PVL progressed to oral carcinoma.


PVL is a persistent and progressive oral lesion that requires very close follow-up along with early and aggressive treatment to increase the chances of a favorable outcome.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center