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Int J Infect Dis. 2007 Jul;11(4):289-99. Epub 2007 Apr 18.

Correlates for disease progression and prognosis during concurrent HIV/TB infection.

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Immunology Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, DST/NRF Center of Excellence in Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa.


Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are both life-threatening pathogens in their own right, but their synergic effects on the immune system during co-infection markedly enhance their effect on the host. This review focuses on the bidirectional interaction between HIV and Mtb and discusses the relevance of sputum smear examination, CD4+ counts, viral load at baseline and after initiation of anti-retroviral therapy, as well as additional existing and new potential immune correlates of disease progression and prognosis. These markers include beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, tumor necrosis factor receptor II (TNFRII), CD8+/CD38+, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and CXCL10 (or IP-10).

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