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Forensic Sci Int. 2007 Oct 2;172(1):1-9. Epub 2007 Apr 16.

A review of the literature on the aging adult skull and face: implications for forensic science research and applications.

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Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, 601 S. College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403-5907, United States.


This paper is a summary of findings of adult age-related craniofacial morphological changes. Our aims are two-fold: (1) through a review of the literature we address the factors influencing craniofacial aging, and (2) the general ways in which a head and face age in adulthood. We present findings on environmental and innate influences on face aging, facial soft tissue age changes, and bony changes in the craniofacial and dentoalveolar skeleton. We then briefly address the relevance of this information to forensic science research and applications, such as the development of computer facial age-progression and face recognition technologies, and contributions to forensic sketch artistry.

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